Бинарный урок по английскому языку и истории


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Russia, no doubt, is a country with a rich history. There were many glorious and heroic events. And there were many great people born in our country whose names are known all over the world. The greatest Russian dates and people sMuch was done by people to reach the present state of human development. It is necessary to say that great contribution to the development of the world science and culture, literature, music and painting was made by the Russian people. The names of Russian scientists and writers, poets, composers and painters are world-famous-Pushkin, Lermontov, Chekhov, Levitan. This chain can be endless. It is almost impossible to name a branch of science in the development of which the Russian scientists haven't played the greatest role. Lomonosov, the founder of the Moscow University was an outstanding innovator both in the humanities and sciences. Mendeleev's greatest discovery was the Periodic System of Elements. Popov invented radio. Sechenov and Pavlov were the world's greatest physiologists. Russia is rightly called the mother of aviation and cosmonautics. Names of Tsiolkovsky, Korolov and Gagarin are symbols of new space era. People in many countries admire paintings, portraits and landscapes Surikov, Levitan, Repin works of our Russian writes and poets are translated into many languages. Peter the GreatPeter the Great, Peter I or Pyotr Alexeyevich (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725) ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his half-brother. In numerous successful wars he expanded the Tsardom into a huge empire that became a major European power. According to historian James Cracraft, he led a cultural revolution that replaced the traditionalist and medieval social and political system with a modern, scientific, Europe-oriented, and rationalist system. Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov ( 24 November 1729 1730 – 18 May 1800), Count Suvorov of Rymnik , Prince of Italy , Count of the Holy Roman Empire, was a Generalissimo of the Russian Empire. Suvorov is considered to be one of the few generals in history who never lost a battle (63-0). He was famed for his military manual The Science of Victory and noted for several of his sayings, including "What is difficult in training will become easy in a battle", and "Perish yourself but rescue your comrade!". He taught his soldiers to attack instantly and decisively: "Attack with the cold steel! Push hard with the bayonet!" He joked with the men, calling common soldiers 'brother', and shrewdly presented the results of detailed planning and careful strategy as the work of inspiration.Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-KutuzovMikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov ( 16 September 1745 – 28 April 1813) was a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire. He served as one of the finest military officers and diplomats of Russia under the reign of three Romanov Tsars: Catherine II, Paul I and Alexander I. His military career was closely associated with the rising period of Russia from the end of the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century. Kutuzov contributed much to the military history of Russia and is considered to have been one of the best Russian generals under the reign of Catherine II. He took part in the suppression of the Bar Confederation's uprising, in three of the Russo-Turkish Wars and in the Napoleonic War, including two major battles at Austerlitz and the battle of Borodin. Under Kutuzov's command, the Russian army was defeated by the Grande Armey at the Battle of Borodino but counter-attacked once Napoleon retreated from Moscow, pushing the French out of the Russian homeland. In recognition of this, Kutuzov was awarded the title of Prince of Smolensk. A memorial was built at Moscow in 1973 to commemorate the 1812 war and Kutuzov's leadership. An order of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation is also named after him. Alexander Sergeyevich PushkinAlexander Sergeyevich Pushkin ( 6 June 1799 – 10 February 1837) was a Russian author of the Romantic era who is considered by many to be the greatest Russian poet and the founder of modern Russian literature.Pushkin was born into the Russian nobility in Moscow. A remarkable fact about his ancestry is that one great-grandfather of his – Abram Gannibal – was brought over as a slave from Africa and had risen to become an aristocrat. Pushkin published his first poem at the age of fifteen, and was widely recognized by the literary establishment by the time of his graduation from the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum. While under the strict surveillance of the Tsar's political police and unable to publish, Pushkin wrote his most famous play, the drama Boris Godunov. His novel in verse, Eugene Onegin, was serialized between 1825 and 1832. Notoriously touchy about his honour, Pushkin fought a total of twenty-nine duels, and was fatally wounded in such an encounter with Georges-Charles de Heeckeren d'Anthès. D'Anthès, a French officer serving with the Chevalier Guard Regiment, had been attempting to seduce the poet's wife, Natalya Pushkina. Pushkin's early death at the age of 37 is still regarded as a catastrophe for Russian literature. Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov ( October 15 1814 – July 27 1841), a Russian Romantic writer, poet and painter, sometimes called "the poet of the Caucasus", became the most important Russian poet after Alexander Pushkin's death in 1837. Lermontov is considered the supreme poet of Russian literature alongside Pushkin and the greatest figure in Russian Romanticism. His influence on later Russian literature is still felt in modern times, not only through his poetry, but also through his prose, which founded the tradition of the Russian psychological novel. Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov ( November 1711 – April 15 1765) was a Russian polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. Among his discoveries was the atmosphere of Venus. His spheres of science were natural science, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, history, art, philology, optical devices and others. Lomonosov was also a poet and influenced the formation of the modern Russian literary language.Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov Ilya Yefimovich Repin Ilya Yefimovich Repin ( 5 August 1844 – 29 September 1930) was a leading Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic school. An important part of his work is dedicated to his native country, Ukraine. His realistic works often expressed great psychological depth and exposed the tensions within the existing social order. Beginning in the late 1920s, detailed works on him were published in the Soviet Union, where a Repin cult developed about a decade later. He was held up as a model "progressive" and "realist" to be imitated by "Socialist Realist" artists in the USSR. And there are many more examples of Russian talents… And now about dates… Year 988The Christianization of Kievan Rus took place in several stages. In early 867, Patriarch Photius of Constantinople announced to other Orthodox patriarchs that the Rus, baptized by his bishop, took to Christianity with particular enthusiasm. Photius's attempts at Christianizing the country seem to have entailed no lasting consequences, since the Primary Chronicle and other Slavonic sources describe the tenth-century Rus as firmly entrenched in paganism. The definitive Christianization of Kiev dates from the late 980s (the year is disputed), when Vladimir the Great was baptized at Chersoneses, proceeding to baptize his family and people in Kiev. The place of Vladimir's baptism is marked by St. Vladimir's Cathedral. Year 1147The city is named after the river. The first reference to Moscow dates from 1147 when Yuri Dolgorukiy called upon the prince of the Novgorod-Severski to "come to me, brother, to Moscow". Nine years later, in 1156, Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy of Rostov ordered the construction of a wooden wall, the Kremlin, which had to be rebuilt multiple times, to surround the emerging city. After the sacking of 1237–1238, when the Mongols burned the city to the ground and killed its inhabitants, Moscow recovered and became the capital of the independent Vladimir-Suzdal principality in 1327. Its favorable position on the headwaters of the Volga River contributed to steady expansion. Moscow developed into a stable and prosperous principality, known as Grand Duchy of Moscow, for many years and attracted a large number of refugees from across Russia. Year 1380The Battle of Kulikovo was fought between the armies of the Golden Horde under the command of Mamai, and various Russian principalities under the united command of Prince Dmitri of Moscow. The battle took place on September 8, 1380, at the Kulikovo Field near the Don River (now Tula Oblast) and was won by Dmitri, who became known as Donskoy (of the Don) after the battle. Although the victory did not end the Mongol rule over the Russian principalities, it is widely regarded by Russian historians as the turning point when Mongol influence began to wane and Muscovite power to rise--a process that eventually led to Muscovite independence and formation of the modern Russian state. According to the Russian historian Lev Gumilev, "Russians went to the Kulikovo field as citizens of various principalities and returned as a united Russian nation". Year 1812The Battle of Borodino , fought on September 7, 1812, was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the French invasion of Russia and third largest of the Napoleonic Wars, involving more than 250,000 troops and resulting in at least 70,000 casualties. The French Grande Armée under Emperor Napoleon I attacked the Imperial Russian Army of General Mikhail Kutuzov near the village of Borodino, west of the town of Mozhaysk, and eventually captured the main positions on the battlefield, but failed to destroy the Russian army despite heavy losses. About a third of Napoleon's soldiers were killed or wounded. Russian losses were also heavy, but casualties could be replaced since large forces of militia were already with the Russian Army and replacement depots which were close by had already been gathering and training troops. The battle itself ended with the Russian Army out of position. Napoleon's Imperial Guard was completely intact and available to his disposition. In refusing to commit the Guard he lost his singular chance to destroy the Russian army. The battle at Borodino was a pivotal point in the campaign, as it was the last offensive action fought by Napoleon in Russia. By withdrawing, the Russian army preserved its combat strength, eventually allowing it to force Napoleon out of the country. Year 1945Victory Day or 9 May marks the capitulation of Nazi Germany to the Soviet Union in the Second World War (also known as the Great Patriotic War in the Soviet Union). It was first inaugurated in the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union, following the signing of the surrender document late in the evening on 8 May 1945 (after midnight, thus on 9 May, by Moscow Time). The Soviet government announced the victory early on 9 May after the signing ceremony in Berlin. Though the official inauguration happened in 1945 (which means it has been celebrated since 1946), the holiday became a non-labour day only in 1965 and only in some of the countries. Thank you 

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