Материалы для подготовки к ЕГЭ, задания 1-8

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1.  New rules to follow2.  New perspectives3.  Perfect for a quiet holiday
4.  Land of nature wonders    5.  A visit to the zoo
6.  Perfect for an active holiday
7.  Difficult start8.  Bad for animalsA.  The mountains of Scotland (we call them the Highlands) are а wild and beautiful part of Europe. A golden eagle flies over the mountains. A deer walks through the silence of the forest. Salmon and trout swim in the clean, pure water of the rivers. Some say that not only fish swim in the deep water of Loch Ness. Speak to the people living by the Loch. Each person has a story of the monster, and some have photographs.
B.  Tresco is a beautiful island with no cars, crowds or noise – just flowers, birds, long sandy beaches and the Tresco Abbey Garden. John and Wendy Pyatt welcome you to the Island Hotel, famous for delicious food, comfort and brilliant service. You will appreciate superb accommodation, free saunas and the indoor swimming pool.
C.  The Camel and Wildlife Safari is a unique mixture of the traditional and modern. Kenya’s countryside suits the Safari purposes exceptionally well. Tourists will have a chance to explore the bush country near Samburu, to travel on a camel back or to sleep out under the stars. Modern safari vehicles are always available for those who prefer comfort.
D.  Arrival can be the hardest part of a trip. It is late, you are road-weary, and everything is new and strange. You need an affordable place to sleep, something to eat and drink, and probably a way to get around. But in general, it’s a wonderful trip, full of wonderful and unusual places. Whether it is the first stop on a trip or the fifth city visited, every traveller feels a little overwhelmed stepping onto a new street in a new city.
E.  No zoo has enough money to provide basic habitats or environments for all the species they keep. Most animals are put in a totally artificial environment, isolated from everything they would meet in their natural habitat. Many will agree that this isolation is harmful to the most of zoo inhabitants, it can even amount to cruelty.
F.  A new London Zoo Project is a ten year project to secure the future for the Zoo and for many endangered animals. The plan has been devised by both animal and business experts to provide world-leading accommodation for all our animals, to more fully engage and inform people about conservation issues, to redesign certain aspects of Zoo layout.
G.  Leave-no-trace camping is an increasingly popular approach to travel in wilderness areas. As the term suggests, the goal is for the camper to leave as little impact as possible on the place he is visiting. One of its mottos is “Take nothing but pictures. Leave nothing but footprints.” Its simplest and most fundamental rule is: pack it in, pack it out, but it goes beyond that.
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London Zoo
London Zoo is one of the most important zoos in the world. There are over 12,000 animals at London Zoo and A __________! Its main concern is to breed threatened animals in captivity. This means we might be able to restock the wild, should disaster ever befall the wild population.
Partula Snail, Red Crowned Crane, Arabian Oryx, Golden Lion Tamarin, Persian Leopard, Asiatic Lion and Sumatran Tiger are just some of the species London Zoo is helping to save.
That is why it is so important that we fight to preserve the habitats that these animals live in, as well as eliminate other dangers B __________. But we aim to make your day at London Zoo a fun and memorable time, C __________.
In the Ambika Paul Children’s Zoo, for instance, youngsters can learn a new love and appreciation for animals D __________. They can also learn how to care for favourite pets in the Pet Care Centre.
Then there are numerous special Highlight events E __________  unforgettable pony rides to feeding times and spectacular animal displays. You will get to meet keepers and ask them what you are interested in about the animals they care for, F __________.
Whatever you decide, you will have a great day. We have left no stone unturned to make sure you do!
   1.  because they see and touch them close up
2.  such as hunting exotic animals and selling furs
3.  as well as the ins and outs of being a keeper at London Zoo
4.  that is not counting every ant in the colony
5.  which demand much time and effort
6.  which take place every day, from
7.  despite the serious side to our work
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Harry Potter course for university students
Students of Durham University are being given the chance to sign up to what is thought to be the UK's first course focusing on the world of Harry Potter. Although every English-speaking person in the world knows about Harry Potter books and films, few have thought of using them as a guide to … modern life.
The Durham University module uses the works of JK Rowling A __________ modern society. “Harry Potter and the Age of Illusion” will be available for study next year. So far about 80 undergraduates have signed B __________ a BA degree in Education Studies. Future educationalists will analyse JK Rowling’s fanfiction from various points of view.
A university spokesman said: “This module places the Harry Potter novels in a wider social and cultural context.” He added that a number of themes would be explored, C __________ the classroom, bullying, friendship and solidarity and the ideals of and good citizenship.
The module was created by the head of the Department of Education at Durham University. He said the idea for the new module had appeared in responseD __________ body: “It seeks to place the series in its wider social and cultural context and will explore some fundamental issues E __________. You just need to read the academic writing which started F __________ that Harry Potter is worthy of serious study.”
   1.  up for the optional module, part of
2.  such as the moral universe of the school
3.  to examine prejudice, citizenship and bullying in
4.  including the world of rituals, prejudice and intolerance in
5.  to emerge four or five years ago to see
6.  such as the response of the writer
7.  to growing demand from the student
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Mobile phones
On New Year’s Day, 1985, Michael Harrison phoned his father, Sir Ernest, to wish him a happy new year. Sir Ernest was chairman of Racal Electronics, the owner of Vodafone, A __________.
At the time, mobile phones weighed almost a kilogram, cost several thousand pounds and provided only 20 minutes talktime. The networks themselves were small; Vodafone had just a dozen masts covering London. Nobody had any idea of the huge potential of wireless communication and the dramatic impactB __________.
Hardly anyone believed there would come a day when mobile phones were so popular C __________. But in 1999 one mobile phone was sold in the UK every four seconds, and by 2004 there were more mobile phones in the UK than people. The boom was a result of increased competition which pushed prices lower and created innovations in the way that mobiles were sold.
When the government introduced more competition, companies started cutting prices to attract more customers. Cellnet, for example, changed its prices,D __________. It also introduced local call tariffs.
The way that handsets themselves were marketed was also changing and it was Finland’s Nokia who made E __________. In the late 1990s Nokia realized that the mobile phone was a fashion item: so it offered interchangeable covers which allowed you to customize and personalize your handset.
The mobile phone industry has spent the later part of the past decade reducing its monthly charge F __________, which has culminated in the fight between the iPhone and a succession of touch screen rivals.
   1.  that there would be more phones in the UK than there are people
2.  the leap from phones as technology to phones as fashion items
3.  and his son was making the first-ever mobile phone call in the UK
4.  the move to digital technology, connecting machines to wireless networks
5.  trying to persuade people to do more with their phones than just call and text
6.  that mobile phones would have over the next quarter century
7.  and relying instead on actual call charges
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Laughing and evolution
The first hoots of laughter from an ancient ancestor of humans could be heard at least 10 million years ago, according to the results of a new study.
Researchers used recordings of apes and babies being tickled A __________ to the last common ancestor that humans shared with the modern great apes, which include chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans.
The finding challenges the opinion B __________, suggesting instead that it emerged long before humans split from the evolutionary path that led to our primate cousins, between 10m and 16m years ago.
“In humans, laughing can be the strongest way of expressing how much we are enjoying ourselves, but it can also be used in other contexts, like making fun of someone,” said Marina Davila Ross, a psychologist at Portsmouth University. “I was interested in C __________.”
Davila Ross travelled to seven zoos around Europe and visited a wildlife reserve in Sabah, Borneo, to record baby and juvenile apes D __________. Great apes are known to make noises that are similar to laughter when they are excited and while they are playing with each other.
Davila Ross collected recordings of laughter from 21 chimps, gorillas, orangutans and bonobos and added recordings of three babies that were tickled to make them laugh.
To analyze the recordings, the team put them into a computer program. “Our evolutionary tree based on these acoustic recordings alone showedE __________, but furthest from orangutans, with gorillas somewhere in the middle.” said Davila Ross. “What this shows is strong evidence to suggest F__________.”
   1.  that laughter is a uniquely human trait
2.  to create the evolutionary tree linking humans and apes
3.  while their caretakers tickled them
4.  that laughing comes from a common primate ancestor
5.  to trace the origin of laughter back
6.  whether laughing emerged earlier on than humans did
7.  that humans were closest to chimps and bonobos
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Nenets Culture affected by Global Warming
For 1,000 years the indigenous Nenets people have migrated along the 450-mile-long Yamal peninsula in northern Russia. In summer they wander northwards, taking their reindeer with them. In winter they return southwards.
But this remote region of north-west Siberia is now being affected by global warming. Traditionally the Nenets travel across the frozen River Ob in NovemberA __________ around Nadym. These days, though, this annual winter migration is delayed. Last year the Nenets, together with many thousands of reindeer, had to wait until late December B __________.
“Our reindeer were hungry. There wasn’t enough food,” Jakov Japtik, a Nenets reindeer herder, said. “The snow is melting sooner, quicker and faster than before. In spring it’s difficult for the reindeer to pull the sledges. They get tired,” Japtik said.
Herders say that the peninsula’s weather is increasingly unpredictable – with unseasonal snowstorms C __________, and milder longer autumns. In winter, temperatures used to go down to -50°C. Now they are normally around -30°C, according to Japtik. “Obviously we prefer -30°C. But the changes aren’t good for the reindeer D __________,” he said, setting off on his sledge to round up his reindeer herd.
Here, in one of the most remote parts of the planet, there are clear signs E __________. Last year the Nenets arrived at a regular summer camping spot and discovered that half of their lake had disappeared. The water had drained away after a landslide. The Nenets report other curious changes – there are fewer mosquitoes and a strange increase in flies. Scientists say there is unmistakable evidence F __________.
   1.  when the reindeer give birth in May
2.  that Yamal’s ancient permafrost is melting
3.  that the impact on Russia would be disastrous
4.  when the ice was finally thick enough to cross
5.  the environment is under pressure
6.  and set up their camps in the southern forests
7.  and in the end what is good for the reindeer is good for us
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Duration of life and its social implications
The world’s population is about to reach a landmark of huge social and economic importance, when the proportion of the global population over 65 outnumbers children under 5 for the first time. A new report by the US census bureau shows A __________, with enormous consequences for both rich and poor nations.
The rate of growth will shoot up in the next couple of years. B __________ a combination of the high birth rates after the Second World War and more recent improvements in health that are bringing down death rates at older ages. Separate UN forecasts predict that the global population will be more than nine billion by 2050.
The US census bureau was the first to sound C __________. Its latest forecasts warn governments and international bodies that this change in population structure will bring widespread challenges at every level of human organization, starting with the structure of the family, which will be transformed as people live longer. This will in turn place new burdens on careers and social services providers, D __________ for health services and pensions systems.
“People are living longer and, in some parts of the world, healthier lives,” the authors conclude. “This represents one of the greatest achievements of the last century but also a significant challenge E __________ population.”
Ageing will put pressure on societies at all levels. One way of measuring that is to look at the older dependency ratio, F __________ that must be supported by them. The ODR is the number of people aged 65 and over for every 100 people aged 20 to 64. It varies widely, from just six in Kenya to 33 in Italy and Japan. The UK has an ODR of 26, and the US has 21.
   1.  the change is due to
2.  a huge shift towards an ageing population
3.  as proportions of older people increase in most countries
4.  while patterns of work and retirement will have huge implications
5.  which recently replaced Italy as the world’s oldest major country
6.  the alarm about these changes
7.  which shows the balance between working-age people and the older
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1.  Old word – new meaning2.  Not for profit3.  Generosity to taste4.  New word – old service    5.  For travellers' needs6.  For body and mind7.  Under lock and key8.  Cheap yet safeA.  The residents of the southern United States are particularly warm to visitors, ready to welcome them to their homes and to the South in general. Food places an important role in the traditions of southern hospitality. A cake or other delicacy is often brought to the door of a new neighbor as a means of introduction. When a serious illness occurs, neighbors, friends, and church members generally bring food to that family as a form of support and encouragement.
B.  Destination spas exist for those who only can take a short term trip, but still want to develop healthy habits. Guests reside and participate in the program at a destination spa instead of just visiting it for a treatment or pure vacation. Typically over a seven-day stay, such facilities provide a program that includes spa services, physical fitness activities, wellness education, healthy cuisine and special interest programming.
C.  When people travel, stay in a hotel, eat out, or go to the movies, they rarely think that they are experiencing many-sided, vast and very diverse hospitality industry. The tourism industry is very challenging for those who work there, as they should be able to meet a wide variety of needs and to be flexible enough to anticipate them. The right person to help us feel at home likes working with the public, and enjoys solving puzzles.
D.  Ten years ago, with the help of friends and family, Veit Kühne founded Hospitality Club as a general-purpose Internet-based hospitality exchange organization. Now, it is one of the largest hospitality networks with members in 226 countries. This is a completely free organization, which involves no money. The core activity is the exchange of accommodation, when hosts offer their guests the possibility to stay free at their homes.
E.  To the ancient Greeks and Romans, hospitality was a divine right. The host was expected to make sure the needs of his guests were seen to. In the contemporary West, hospitality is rarely associated with generously provided care and kindness to whoever is in need or strangers. Now it is only a service that includes hotels, casinos, and resorts, which offer comfort and guidance to strangers, but only as part of a business relationship.
F.  A bed and breakfast is a type of overnight accommodation with breakfast offered in someone's private home. This type of service was established inEurope many years ago and its roots lie a long way back in history when monasteries provided bed and breakfasts for travelers. But the term appeared in the UK only after World War II, when numerous foreigners needed a place to stay and local people opened their homes and started serving breakfast to those overnight guests.
G.  Hostels are nothing more than budget oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, and share a bathroom, lounge and sometimes a kitchen. But somehow there are misconceptions that a hostel is a kind of homeless shelter, a dangerous place where young people can face potential threat. This does not reflect the high quality and level of professionalism in many modern hostels.
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Welcome to the Smithsonian
When you visit any of the Smithsonian’s 19 museums and galleries or the National zoo, you are entering the largest museum complex in the world. This complex holds about 137 million unique objects in its trust for the American people.
The Smithsonian was established in 1846 with funds given to the United States by James Smithson, an English scientist. The main idea was to increase and spread knowledge for free. And now all Smithsonian institutions are still devoted to public education, A__________ history.
Ten Smithsonian museums and galleries are located in the centre of the U.S. capital. Six other museums and the National zoo are nearby in theWashington metropolitan area, B__________.
The 19th and the newest museum C__________ is the National Museum of African American history and culture. It is now operating in the form of a virtual museum. Its key feature is the memory book, D__________. These diverse memories are linked to each other and to the museum content,E__________.
The Smithsonian complex is home to the world’s foremost research centres in science, the arts and the humanities. Besides the basic researchF__________, there are a number of special facilities. Conservation centre at the zoo studies rare and endangered species, environment centre carries out research in ecosystems in the coastal area.
   1.  that is carried on regularly in each of the museums
2.  providing different materials in the arts, science and
3.  placing a spotlight on people and events in African American history
4.  that has been established within the Smithsonian complex
5.  which allows website visitors to upload their own stories or images
6.  and visitors can enjoy watching rare exhibits on
7.  and two museums are situated in New York City
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1.  Earth is not enough2.  The word came first 
3.  Challenging the skilful4.  Coloured stereotype    5.  Taste of culture6.  Not only exercising7.  To preserve and respect 
8.  Follow the idolA.  Entering the English language in the late nineteenth century, the word safari meant a trip to Africa for a big-game hunt. Today the term refers to a trip taken not to hunt, but to observe and photograph the animals and other wildlife. This activity had become so popular that it has originated a certain style of fashion. It includes khaki clothing, belted bush jackets, helmets and animal skin prints, like leopard's skin, for example.
B.  The purpose of ecological tourism is to educate the traveler, provide funds for conservation and promote respect for different cultures and human rights. The participants of ecotourism want the environment to stay relatively untouched by human intervention, so that coming generations can experience it fully. That is why ecotourism appeals to ecologically and socially conscious individuals, who don’t mind volunteering.
C.  People who like seeing dangerous places, such as mountains, jungles and deserts, participating in dangerous events, and experiencing extreme sport definitely appreciate extreme tourism or shock tourism. This type of tourism is based on two key factors. The first one is an addiction to adrenaline caused by an element of risk. And another one is the opportunity to show a high degree of engagement and professionalism.
D.  Culinary tourism is something you can enjoy if you like good food and want each of your dishes to be a unique and memorable experience. But culinary tourism also considers food to be a vital component of traditions and history of any country, region or city. The tourists believe that by experiencing each other’s foods people can learn something new about each other’s lives.
E.  Space tourism used to mean ordinary members of the public buying tickets to travel to space and back. That is why many people find this idea revolutionary. But over the past few years a growing volume of work has been done on the subject, and it's clear that commercial space tourism is a realistic target for business today. Market research has shown that many people in the developed countries would like to take a trip to space if it were possible.
F.  The sports tourism industry has earned an international reputation because it is open to everyone: amateurs, fans, and professional athletes with their trainers and coaches who come for a range of activities from training camps through friendship games to international championship competitions. Sport tourism combines the opportunity for athletes and sportspeople to benefit from sports activities with a relaxing and enjoyable vacation.
G.  To go to Tunisia to explore the place where the film Star Wars was made or to New Zealand after The Lord of the Rings is very easy for those who practice pop-culture tourism and like to travel to locations featured in literature, films, music, or any other form of popular entertainment. But pop-culture tourism is not only about going to popular destinations. In some respects it is very similar to a pilgrimage, only the places are new, for example Elvis Presley's Graceland.
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