задания по английскому языку для 10 класса (Формат ЕГЭ) дифференцированное обучение


ELEMENTARY
1. Fill in the gaps choosing the best variant. -I think we can’t live without cutting down trees because it 1)… us with wood and paper and space for new roads and buildings.-Yes, you are right but it 2)… wildlife habitats and 3)… the amount of pollutants and CO2 emissions in the air. So cutting down trees 4)… global warming and climate change.-May be you right but what do you think of modern transport? It 5)… our towns and cities and 6)… the environment.-Yes, it’s a problem but modern transport 7)… us time and effort. 1.A increases B provides C improves2.A destroys B builds C plants3.A decreases B increases C pollutes4.A cuts down B congests C causes5.A congests B destroys C provides6.A saves B pollutes C provides 7.A causes B improves C saves
2. Read the text and do the exercises:
                                                             
   Прочитайте статью об аварии на Чернобыльской АЭС  и выполните задания А1 – А7, выбрав в таблице цифру 1,2,3 или 4, соответствующую ответу, который вам кажется наиболее верным.
     On April 26 1986, one of history’s worst nuclear accidents occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power plant in the Ukraine (the former Soviet Union). At 1:23 AM, technicians at the Chernobyl plant allowed the power in the fourth reactor ( reactor -4) to fall to low levels as part of a controlled experiment, which went terribly wrong. The reactor overheated and caused a meltdown of the core. This resulted in an explosive force of steam, which blew off the lid of the reactor. Large amounts of radioactive material were released into the atmosphere. The reactor-4 explosions released more radioactivity than the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II. Most of the discharged material was deposited close by as dust and debris, but wind carried the lighter radioactive material overthe Ukraine, Belarus, Russia and parts of Europe.
      The operators’ over-confident decision-making, a flaw in the design of the reactor, and inadequate safety systems are believed to be the major factors that caused the Chernobyl disaster.
     Many people were affected by this catastrophe. The accident caused 31 immediate deaths that were mainly the result of exposure to radiation. The main casualties were among those who fought the fires caused by the explosion. Once the fires were extinguished, a liquidating crew of around 200,000 people was initially employed to clean up the site. Later the number swelled to 600,000. This crew was exposed to high doses of radiation, which might affect their health in the long run.
      Many children in the surrounding areas developed thyroid cancer due to the radiation emitted. Many Ukrainians, Russians and Belarussians were evacuated and later given new homes in a different area.
     Today reactor-4 is buried in a cement tomb which was quickly built in order to allow the other reactors at the power station to continue working. However, this shelter is not strong and will not last and there are plants to replace it. Many people have suffered in some way as a result of the Chernobyl disaster and millions of dollars are still being spent today to contain reactor-4 and assure that no further radiation leakage occurs. А1The Chernobyl disaster is thought to be …
1. as serious as the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings.
2. Europe’s greatest catastrophe.
A2 When the Chernobyl-4 reactor overheated …
1. technicians turned it down.
2. it melted the core.
A3 One of the causes of the accidents was …
1. the raising of the power in reactor-4 to high levels.
2. a design fault.
A4 The reactor-4 explosion resulted in the …
1. spread of the heavier radioactive material by the wind.
2. release of reactor-4’s cover.
A5 Most of the people who died as a result of the explosion were
1. firefighters.
2. operators of the reactor.
A6 The members of the clean-up crew …
1. were subject to high levels of radiation.
2. were unharmed by the radiation.
A7 Reactor-4
1. is still leaking radiation.
2. is enclosed in cement.
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7
Варианты ответов 1 2 3 4 сore  - внутренность, ядро, сердцевина                 casualty   - жертва
lid   - крышка                                                             crew    - команда
to  release   - выпускать, освобождать                  to clean up   - прибирать
to deposit   - выпускать                                           to leak    - течь, просачиваться
dust and debris   - пыль и обломки                        to enclose  - вкладывать, огораживать
lack   - недостаток, отсутствие                               flaw   - трещина, изъян
3. Read the text and choose the appropriate answer.
In some parts of the world, air pollution is a big problem. Pollution is caused by burning fuel in vehicles and buildings. The smoke from burning fuel has poisonous gases and dust that make the air dirty. Why else is pollution bad? The dirty air hurts people, causing more colds, coughs and diseases of the heart and lungs. It also harms plants and animals and makes clothing and buildings dirty.
Which is true to the text? (only one variant is right)
A) Air pollution is not much of a problem.
B) Smoke carries poisonous gases.
C) Air pollution helps people stay healthy.
D) Burning fuel comes from dust.
E) Dirty buildings cause pollution.
4. Reading: read the text and answer the question. What are the reasons of pollution?
Environmental pollution is the addition of any substance or form of energy (e.g., heat, sound, radioactivity) to the environment at a rate faster than the environment can accommodate it by dispersion, breakdown, recycling, or storage in some harmless form.
Pollution of the natural environment is a largely unintended and unwanted consequence of human activities in manufacturing, transportation, agriculture, and waste disposal. High levels of pollution are largely a consequence of industrialization, urbanization, and the rapid increase of human populations in modern times.
Pollutants commonly are classified according to the part of the environment primarily affected by them: either the air, water, or land. Subgroupings depend on characteristics of the pollutants themselves: chemical, physical, thermal, and others. Many pollutants affect more than one resource.
A pollutant need not be harmful in itself. Carbon dioxide, for example, is a normal component of the atmosphere and a by-product of respiration that is found in all animal tissues; yet in a concentrated form it can kill animals. Human sewage can be a useful fertilizer, but when concentrated too highly it becomes a serious pollutant, menacing health and causing the depletion of oxygen in bodies of water. By contrast, radioactivity in any quantity is harmful to life, despite the fact that it occurs normally in the environment as so-called background radiation.
Exercise 4/1. Cross out the kinds of pollution which are not mentioned in the text.
noise pollution air pollution water pollution
land pollution chemical pollution
dust pollution thermal pollution light pollution
nuclear pollution oil pollution
radiation pollution
INTERMEDIATE
Fill in the gaps choosing the best variant. -I think we can’t live without cutting down trees because it 1)… us with wood and paper and space for new roads and buildings.-Yes, you are right but it 2)… wildlife habitats and 3)… the amount of pollutants and CO2 emissions in the air. So cutting down trees 4)… global warming and climate change.-May be you right but what do you think of modern transport? It 5)… our towns and cities and 6)… the environment.-Yes, it’s a problem but modern transport 7)… us time and effort. 1.A increases B provides C improves2.A destroys B builds C plants3.A decreases B increases C pollutes4.A cuts down B congests C causes5.A congests B destroys C provides6.A saves B pollutes C provides 7.A causes B improves C saves
2. Read the text and do the exercises:
                                                             
   Прочитайте статью об аварии на Чернобыльской АЭС  и выполните задания А1 – А7, выбрав в таблице цифру 1,2,3 или 4, соответствующую ответу, который вам кажется наиболее верным.
     On April 26 1986, one of history’s worst nuclear accidents occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power plant in the Ukraine (the former Soviet Union). At 1:23 AM, technicians at the Chernobyl plant allowed the power in the fourth reactor ( reactor -4) to fall to low levels as part of a controlled experiment, which went terribly wrong. The reactor overheated and caused a meltdown of the core. This resulted in an explosive force of steam, which blew off the lid of the reactor. Large amounts of radioactive material were released into the atmosphere. The reactor-4 explosions released more radioactivity than the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II. Most of the discharged material was deposited close by as dust and debris, but wind carried the lighter radioactive material overthe Ukraine, Belarus, Russia and parts of Europe.
      The operators’ over-confident decision-making, a flaw in the design of the reactor, and inadequate safety systems are believed to be the major factors that caused the Chernobyl disaster.
     Many people were affected by this catastrophe. The accident caused 31 immediate deaths that were mainly the result of exposure to radiation. The main casualties were among those who fought the fires caused by the explosion. Once the fires were extinguished, a liquidating crew of around 200,000 people was initially employed to clean up the site. Later the number swelled to 600,000. This crew was exposed to high doses of radiation, which might affect their health in the long run.
      Many children in the surrounding areas developed thyroid cancer due to the radiation emitted. Many Ukrainians, Russians and Belarussians were evacuated and later given new homes in a different area.
     Today reactor-4 is buried in a cement tomb which was quickly built in order to allow the other reactors at the power station to continue working. However, this shelter is not strong and will not last and there are plants to replace it. Many people have suffered in some way as a result of the Chernobyl disaster and millions of dollars are still being spent today to contain reactor-4 and assure that no further radiation leakage occurs. А1The Chernobyl disaster is thought to be …
1. as serious as the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings.
2. a minor accident with no future consequences.
3. Europe’s greatest catastrophe.
A2 When the Chernobyl-4 reactor overheated …
1. technicians turned it down.
2. it melted the core.
3. the power plants was filled with steam.
A3 One of the causes of the accidents was …
1. the raising of the power in reactor-4 to high levels.
2. a design fault.
3. the installation of proper safety back-up systems.
.
A4 The reactor-4 explosion resulted in the …
1. spread of the heavier radioactive material by the wind.
2. release of dust and debris into the atmosphere.
3. release of reactor-4’s cover.
A5 Most of the people who died as a result of the explosion were
1. firefighters.
2. members of the clean up crew.
3. operators of the reactor.
A6 The members of the clean-up crew …
1. put out the fires.
2. were subject to high levels of radiation.
3. were unharmed by the radiation.
A7 Reactor-4
1. is still leaking radiation.
2. is enclosed in cement.
3. will be replaced in the future.
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7
Варианты ответов 1 2 3 4 сore  - внутренность, ядро, сердцевина                 
lid   - крышка                                                             
3. Read the text and choose the appropriate answer.
In some parts of the world, air pollution is a big problem. Pollution is caused by burning fuel in vehicles and buildings. The smoke from burning fuel has poisonous gases and dust that make the air dirty. Why else is pollution bad? The dirty air hurts people, causing more colds, coughs and diseases of the heart and lungs. It also harms plants and animals and makes clothing and buildings dirty.
Which is true to the text?
A) Air pollution is not much of a problem.
B) Smoke carries poisonous gases.
C) Air pollution helps people stay healthy.
D) Burning fuel comes from dust.
E) Dirty buildings cause pollution.
4. Winters in the northern regions of North America present a real challenge to animals living in this region.
List and briefly describe four strategies for surviving the winter cold.
5. Reading:
5/1Read the text about pollution and make up its plan
Environmental pollution is the addition of any substance or form of energy (e.g., heat, sound, radioactivity) to the environment at a rate faster than the environment can accommodate it by dispersion, breakdown, recycling, or storage in some harmless form.
Pollution of the natural environment is a largely unintended and unwanted consequence of human activities in manufacturing, transportation, agriculture, and waste disposal. High levels of pollution are largely a consequence of industrialization, urbanization, and the rapid increase of human populations in modern times.
Pollutants commonly are classified according to the part of the environment primarily affected by them: either the air, water, or land. Subgroupings depend on characteristics of the pollutants themselves: chemical, physical, thermal, and others. Many pollutants affect more than one resource.
A pollutant need not be harmful in itself. Carbon dioxide, for example, is a normal component of the atmosphere and a by-product of respiration that is found in all animal tissues; yet in a concentrated form it can kill animals. Human sewage can be a useful fertilizer, but when concentrated too highly it becomes a serious pollutant, menacing health and causing the depletion of oxygen in bodies of water. By contrast, radioactivity in any quantity is harmful to life, despite the fact that it occurs normally in the environment as so-called background radiation.
Exercise 5/3. Cross out the kinds of pollution which are not mentioned in the text.
noise pollution air pollution water pollution
land pollution chemical pollution
dust pollution thermal pollution light pollution
nuclear pollution oil pollution
radiation pollution
Exercise 5/4. Answer the following questions.
1. What pollutants are mentioned in the text? Which of them are harmful to life in any quantity? Which are harmful only in concentrated form?
2. How does the environment accommodate substances and forms of energy?
Exercise 5/5. Match the columns.
Consequence actions
activity contemporary
waste disposal result
rapid have effect
modern dumping
affect fast
UPPER - INTERMEDIATE
Fill in the gaps choosing the best variant. 
1. Read the text and do the exercises:
                                                             
   Прочитайте статью об аварии на Чернобыльской АЭС  и выполните задания А1 – А7, выбрав в таблице цифру 1,2,3 или 4, соответствующую ответу, который вам кажется наиболее верным.
     On April 26 1986, one of history’s worst nuclear accidents occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power plant in the Ukraine (the former Soviet Union). At 1:23 AM, technicians at the Chernobyl plant allowed the power in the fourth reactor ( reactor -4) to fall to low levels as part of a controlled experiment, which went terribly wrong. The reactor overheated and caused a meltdown of the core. This resulted in an explosive force of steam, which blew off the lid of the reactor. Large amounts of radioactive material were released into the atmosphere. The reactor-4 explosions released more radioactivity than the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II. Most of the discharged material was deposited close by as dust and debris, but wind carried the lighter radioactive material overthe Ukraine, Belarus, Russia and parts of Europe.
      The operators’ over-confident decision-making, a flaw in the design of the reactor, and inadequate safety systems are believed to be the major factors that caused the Chernobyl disaster.
     Many people were affected by this catastrophe. The accident caused 31 immediate deaths that were mainly the result of exposure to radiation. The main casualties were among those who fought the fires caused by the explosion. Once the fires were extinguished, a liquidating crew of around 200,000 people was initially employed to clean up the site. Later the number swelled to 600,000. This crew was exposed to high doses of radiation, which might affect their health in the long run.
      Many children in the surrounding areas developed thyroid cancer due to the radiation emitted. Many Ukrainians, Russians and Belarussians were evacuated and later given new homes in a different area.
     Today reactor-4 is buried in a cement tomb which was quickly built in order to allow the other reactors at the power station to continue working. However, this shelter is not strong and will not last and there are plants to replace it. Many people have suffered in some way as a result of the Chernobyl disaster and millions of dollars are still being spent today to contain reactor-4 and assure that no further radiation leakage occurs. А1The Chernobyl disaster is thought to be …
1. as serious as the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings.
2. a minor accident with no future consequences.
3. one of many similar accidents.
4. Europe’s greatest catastrophe.
A2 When the Chernobyl-4 reactor overheated …
1. technicians turned it down.
2. it melted the core.
3. the power plants was filled with steam.
4. it sealed the lid of the reactor shut.
A3 One of the causes of the accidents was …
1. the raising of the power in reactor-4 to high levels.
2. a design fault.
3. the installation of proper safety back-up systems.
4. the technicians lack of confidence.
A4 The reactor-4 explosion resulted in the …
1. spread of the heavier radioactive material by the wind.
2. immediate death of 200,000 people.
3. release of dust and debris into the atmosphere.
4. release of reactor-4’s cover.
A5 Most of the people who died as a result of the explosion were
1. firefighters.
2. members of the clean up crew.
3. operators of the reactor.
4. children.
A6 The members of the clean-up crew …
1. developed thyroid cancer.
2. put out the fires.
3. were subject to high levels of radiation.
4. were unharmed by the radiation.
A7 Reactor-4
1. is still leaking radiation.
2. is enclosed in cement.
3. will be replaced in the future.
4. cost millions of dollars.
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7
Варианты ответов 1 2 3 4 2. Read the text and choose the appropriate answer.
In some parts of the world, air pollution is a big problem. Pollution is caused by burning fuel in vehicles and buildings. The smoke from burning fuel has poisonous gases and dust that make the air dirty. Why else is pollution bad? The dirty air hurts people, causing more colds, coughs and diseases of the heart and lungs. It also harms plants and animals and makes clothing and buildings dirty.
Which is true to the text? And why?
A) Air pollution is not much of a problem.
B) Smoke carries poisonous gases.
C) Air pollution helps people stay healthy.
D) Burning fuel comes from dust.
E) Dirty buildings cause pollution.
4. Winters in the northern regions of North America present a real challenge to animals living in this region.
List and briefly describe four strategies for surviving the winter cold.
Also provide an example of animal utilizing this strategy.
5. Reading:
5/1 Compare your definition of pollution with one from the text
5/2 Read the text about pollution and make up its plan
Environmental pollution is the addition of any substance or form of energy (e.g., heat, sound, radioactivity) to the environment at a rate faster than the environment can accommodate it by dispersion, breakdown, recycling, or storage in some harmless form.
Pollution of the natural environment is a largely unintended and unwanted consequence of human activities in manufacturing, transportation, agriculture, and waste disposal. High levels of pollution are largely a consequence of industrialization, urbanization, and the rapid increase of human populations in modern times.
Pollutants commonly are classified according to the part of the environment primarily affected by them: either the air, water, or land. Subgroupings depend on characteristics of the pollutants themselves: chemical, physical, thermal, and others. Many pollutants affect more than one resource.
A pollutant need not be harmful in itself. Carbon dioxide, for example, is a normal component of the atmosphere and a by-product of respiration that is found in all animal tissues; yet in a concentrated form it can kill animals. Human sewage can be a useful fertilizer, but when concentrated too highly it becomes a serious pollutant, menacing health and causing the depletion of oxygen in bodies of water. By contrast, radioactivity in any quantity is harmful to life, despite the fact that it occurs normally in the environment as so-called background radiation.
Exercise 5/3. Answer the following questions.
1. What are the reasons of pollution?
2. What pollutants are mentioned in the text? Which of them are harmful to life in any quantity? Which are harmful only in concentrated form?
3. How does the environment accommodate substances and forms of energy?
4. What are the pollutants which affect more than one resource?
Exercise 5/5. Give the synonyms to these words
Consequence
activity
waste disposal
rapid
modern
affect

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